Research Articles – Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP)
In-session focus exercises in an atmosphere of felt safety help patients confront the feared stimuli and modify the Pavlovian fear driving the refractory emotional state. Learning appropriate non-avoidant ways to deal with the fear stimuli also decreases Skinnerian avoidance behavior and prepares the way for mood change. In the beginning of therapy, it should be remembered that the chronic mood associated with trauma or psychological insults may involve stimulus events that remain tacit knowledge (out of awareness) for patients (i.e., the pain, fear and anxiety are clearly observable but the actual precipitating and maintaining stimuli may not be clearly understood or recognized by the patient). Material derived from the Significant Other History (SOH: McCullough, 2000, 2006) often illustrates the tacit knowledge dimension of the patient’s avoidance patterns. In summary, another way to describe what’s going on in the beginning of therapy is to say that patients are avoiding others (including the therapist) and not responding to the interpersonal environment. Interpersonal avoidance always dictates that the patient’s primary focus remains on himself or herself (i.e., patients stay “in their heads”). In such a psychosocial functioning state, these individuals remain helpless and hopeless and continue to respond to themselves in a solitary and never-ending circle of pain, fear, anxiety (and depression); hence, they are unable to connect with their interpersonal world in any informing way – we diagnose this pattern of living, Chronic Depression (Comments above taken from McCullough, 2000: pp. 270–274; McCullough, 2006: pp. 124–131). – Wikipedia
- Arnow, Bruce A., and Michael J. Constantino. “Effectiveness of psychotherapy and combination treatment for chronic depression.” Journal of Clinical Psychology 59, no. 8 (2003): 893-905.
- Brakemeier, E-L., Vera Engel, Elisabeth Schramm, Ingo Zobel, Teresa Schmidt, Martin Hautzinger, Mathias Berger, and Claus Normann. “Feasibility and outcome of cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) for chronically depressed inpatients: a pilot study.” Psychotherapy and psychosomatics 80, no. 3 (2011): 191-194.
- Klein, Daniel N., Andrew C. Leon, Chunshan Li, Thomas J. D’Zurilla, Sarah R. Black, Dina Vivian, Frank Dowling et al. “Social problem solving and depressive symptoms over time: A randomized clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, brief supportive psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy.” Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 79, no. 3 (2011): 342.
- McCullough, James P. “Treatment for chronic depression using cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP).” Journal of clinical psychology 59, no. 8 (2003): 833-846.
- McCullough, J. P. “CBASP, the Third Wave and the treatment of chronic depression.” Journal of European Psychotherapy 9 (2010): 169-190.
- Swan, John S., Robert MacVicar, David Christmas, Rob Durham, Petra Rauchhaus, James P. McCullough, and Keith Matthews. “Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) for chronic depression: Clinical characteristics and six month clinical outcomes in an open case series.” Journal of affective disorders 152 (2014): 268-276.
- Torpey, Dana C., and Daniel N. Klein. “Chronic depression: update on classification and treatment.” Current psychiatry reports 10, no. 6 (2008): 458-464.